Difference between principal and principle in urdu
Founded by Sayyid Ahmad of Rae Bareli, the Wahhabi Movement in India was a vigorous movement for socio-religious reforms in Indo-Islamic society in the nineteenth century with strong political undercurrents. It stood for a strong affirmation of Tauhid unity of God , the efficacy of ijtihad the right of further interpretation of the Quran and the Sunnah, or of forming a new opinion by applying analogy and the rejection of bid'at innovation. It remained active for half a century. Sayyid Ahmad's writings show an awareness of the increasing British presence in the country and he regarded British India as a daru'l harb abode of war.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Doctor Tells You #2: Principal VS Principle
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Principal vs. Principle
In English law , natural justice is technical terminology for the rule against bias nemo iudex in causa sua and the right to a fair hearing audi alteram partem. While the term natural justice is often retained as a general concept, it has largely been replaced and extended by the general "duty to act fairly". The basis for the rule against bias is the need to maintain public confidence in the legal system.
Bias can take the form of actual bias, imputed bias or apparent bias. Actual bias is very difficult to prove in practice while imputed bias, once shown, will result in a decision being void without the need for any investigation into the likelihood or suspicion of bias.
Cases from different jurisdictions currently apply two tests for apparent bias: the "reasonable suspicion of bias" test and the "real likelihood of bias" test.
One view that has been taken is that the differences between these two tests are largely semantic and that they operate similarly. The right to a fair hearing requires that individuals should not be penalized by decisions affecting their rights or legitimate expectations unless they have been given prior notice of the case, a fair opportunity to answer it, and the opportunity to present their own case. The mere fact that a decision affects rights or interests is sufficient to subject the decision to the procedures required by natural justice.
In Europe, the right to a fair hearing is guaranteed by Article 6 1 of the European Convention on Human Rights , which is said to complement the common law rather than replace it. Natural justice is a term of art that denotes specific procedural rights in the English legal system  and the systems of other nations based on it.
It is similar to the American concepts of fair procedure and procedural due process , the latter having roots that to some degree parallel the origins of natural justice. Although natural justice has an impressive ancestry  and is said to express the close relationship between the common law and moral principles,  the use of the term today is not to be confused with the " natural law " of the Canonists , the mediaeval philosophers' visions of an "ideal pattern of society" or the "natural rights" philosophy of the 18th century.
Natural justice is identified with the two constituents of a fair hearing,  : which are the rule against bias nemo iudex in causa sua , or "no man a judge in his own cause" , and the right to a fair hearing audi alteram partem , or "hear the other side".
The requirements of natural justice or a duty to act fairly depend on the context. Furthermore, preliminary decisions will generally not trigger the duty to act fairly, but decisions of a more final nature may have such an effect.
No duty exists where the relationship is one of master and servant, or where the individual holds office at the pleasure of the authority. On the other hand, a duty to act fairly exists where the individual cannot be removed from office except for cause. A person is barred from deciding any case in which he or she may be, or may fairly be suspected to be, biased. This principle embodies the basic concept of impartiality,  and applies to courts of law, tribunals, arbitrators and all those having the duty to act judicially.
The basis on which impartiality operates is the need to maintain public confidence in the legal system. The erosion of public confidence undermines the nobility of the legal system and leads to ensuing chaos. Public confidence as the basis for the rule against bias is also embodied in the often-quoted words of Lord Hewart , the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales , that "[i]t is not merely of some importance, but of fundamental importance that justice should not only be done, but should manifestly be seen to be done".
Bias may be actual, imputed or apparent. Actual bias is established where it is actually established that a decision-maker was prejudiced in favour of or against a party. However, in practice, the making of such an allegation is rare as it is very hard to prove. One form of imputed bias is based on the decision-maker being a party to a suit, or having a pecuniary or proprietary interest in the outcome of the decision. Once this fact has been established, the bias is irrebuttable and disqualification is automatic—the decision-maker will be barred from adjudicating the matter without the need for any investigation into the likelihood or suspicion of bias.
However, it was discovered by Dimes that Lord Cottenham, in fact, owned several pounds' worth of shares in the Grand Junction Canal. This eventually led to the judge being disqualified from deciding the case. There was no inquiry as to whether a reasonable person would consider Lord Cottenham to be biased, or as to the circumstances which led Lord Cottenham to hear the case. In certain limited situations, bias can also be imputed when the decision-maker's interest in the decision is not pecuniary but personal.
Amnesty International AI was given leave to intervene in the proceedings. However, one of the judges of the case, Lord Hoffmann , was a director and chairperson of Amnesty International Charity Ltd. He was eventually disqualified from the case and the outcome of the proceedings set aside. Even though it was non-pecuniary, the Law Lords took the view that the interest was sufficient to warrant Lord Hoffmann's automatic disqualification from hearing the case.
In Locabail UK Ltd v Bayfield Properties Ltd ,  the Court of Appeal warned against any further extension of the automatic disqualification rule, "unless plainly required to give effect to the important underlying principles upon which the rule is based". Apparent bias is present where a judge or other decision-maker is not a party to a matter and does not have an interest in its outcome, but through his or her conduct or behaviour gives rise to a suspicion that he or she is not impartial.
Currently, cases from various jurisdictions apply two different tests: "real likelihood of bias" and "reasonable suspicion of bias". The real likelihood test centres on whether the facts, as assessed by the court, give rise to a real likelihood of bias. Lord Goff of Chievely also stated that "the court should look at the matter through the eyes of a reasonable man, because the court in cases such as these personifies the reasonable man".
One criticism is that the emphasis on the court's view of the facts gives insufficient emphasis to the perception of the public. On the other hand, the reasonable suspicion test asks whether a reasonable and fair-minded person sitting in court and knowing all the relevant facts would have a reasonable suspicion that a fair trial for the litigant is not possible.
It has been suggested that the differences between the two tests are largely semantic and that the two tests operate similarly. In Locabail , the judges stated that in a large proportion of the cases, application of the two tests would lead to the same outcome.
It was also held that "[p]rovided that the court, personifying the reasonable man, takes an approach which is based on broad common sense, and without inappropriate reliance on special knowledge, the minutiae of court procedure or other matters outside the ken of the ordinary, reasonably well-informed members of the public, there should be no risk that the courts will not ensure both that justice is done and that it is perceived by the public to be done".
Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners Board ,  Judicial Commissioner Andrew Phang observed that the real likelihood test is in reality similar to that of reasonable suspicion.
First, likelihood is in fact "possibility", as opposed to the higher standard of proof centring on "probability". Secondly, he suggested that real in real likelihood cannot be taken to mean "actual", as this test relates to apparent and not actual bias.
He also observed that both the court's and the public's perspectives are "integral parts of a holistic process" with no need to draw a sharp distinction between them.
Reasonable suggests that the belief cannot be fanciful. Here the issue is whether it is reasonable for the one to harbour the suspicions in the circumstances even though the suspicious behaviour could be innocent.
On the other hand, likelihood points towards something being likely, and real suggests that this must be substantial rather than imagined. Here, then, the inquiry is directed more towards the actor than the observer. The issue is the degree to which a particular event is not likely or possible  : 99 Menon J. Although this a lower standard than satisfaction on a balance of probabilities , this is actually directed at mitigating the sheer difficulty of proving actual bias, especially given its insidious and often subconscious nature.
The reasonable suspicion test, however, is met if the court is satisfied that a reasonable member of the public could harbour a reasonable suspicion of bias even though the court itself thought there was no real danger of this on the facts.
The difference is that the driver behind this test is the strong public interest in ensuring public confidence in the administration of justice. There are cases in which a disqualified adjudicator cannot be replaced, as no one else is authorized to act. It has been observed that "disqualification of an adjudicator will not be permitted to destroy the only tribunal with power to act". This issue regarding necessity was raised in Dimes. It was held that his shareholding in the canal company which barred him from sitting in the appeal did not affect his power to enroll, as no one but him had the authority to do so.
It was mentioned this was allowed "for this [was] a case of necessity, and where that occurs the objection of interest cannot prevail". The court normally requests that an objection be taken as soon as the prejudiced party has knowledge of the bias. In Dimes ,  the judges advised the House of Lords that Lord Cottenham's pecuniary interest made his judgment not void , but voidable. This advice is not wrong in the context of a judicial act under review, where the judgment will be held valid unless reversed on appeal.
However, in the cases of administrative acts or decisions under judicial review, the court can only intervene on the grounds of ultra vires ,  : hence making the judgment void.
Lord Esher said in Allison v General Council of Medical Education and Registration  that the participation of a disqualified person "certainly rendered the decision wholly void". It has been suggested that the rule requiring a fair hearing is broad enough to include the rule against bias since a fair hearing must be an unbiased hearing.
However, the rules are often treated separately. It is fundamental to fair procedure that both sides should be heard. Besides promoting an individual's liberties, the right to a fair hearing has also been used by courts as a base on which to build up fair administrative procedures.
In Ridge v Baldwin , Lord Reid reviewed the authorities extensively and attacked the problem at its root by demonstrating how the term judicial had been misinterpreted as requiring some additional characteristic over and above the characteristic that the power affected some person's rights. In his view, the mere fact that the power affects rights or interests is what makes it "judicial" and so subject to the procedures required by natural justice. The mere fact that a decision-maker is conferred wide discretion by law is not reason enough for a weakening of the requirements of natural justice.
In the United Kingdom context, this is demonstrated by Ahmed v H. Treasury No. The right to a fair hearing is also referred to in Article 6 1 of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms , which states: . In the determination of his civil rights and obligations or of any criminal charge against him, everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law. Article 6 does not, however, replace the common law duty to ensure a fair hearing.
It has been suggested that Article 6 alone is not enough to protect procedural due process, and only with the development of a more sophisticated common law will the protection of procedural due process extend further into the administrative machine. For example, the common law does not impose a general duty to give reasons for a decision, but under Article 6 1 a decision-maker must give a reasoned judgment so as to enable an affected individual to decide whether to appeal.
Natural justice allows a person to claim the right to adequate notification of the date, time, place of the hearing as well as detailed notification of the case to be met. In Cooper v Wandsworth ,  Chief Justice William Erle went so far as to state that the lack of notice and hearing afforded to Cooper could be said to be a form of abuse, as he had been treated as if he did not matter. It has been suggested that the requirement of prior notice serves three important purposes:  : The British courts have held it is not enough for an affected person to merely be informed of a hearing.
He or she must also be told what is at stake; in other words, the gist of the case. Every person has the right to have a hearing and be allowed to present his or her own case. In Ridge v Baldwin , a chief constable succeeded in having his dismissal from service declared void as he had not been given the opportunity to make a defence.
In another case, Chief Constable of the North Wales Police v Evans ,  a chief constable required a police probationer to resign on account of allegations about his private life which he was given no fair opportunity to rebut. The House of Lords found the dismissal to be unlawful. Likewise in Surinder Singh Kanda v Federation of Malaya ,  a public servant facing disciplinary proceedings was not supplied with a copy of a prejudicial report by a board of inquiry which the adjudicating officer had access to before the hearing.
The Privy Council held that the proceedings had failed to provide him a reasonable opportunity of being heard. However, this requirement does not necessarily mean the decision-maker has to meet the complainant face to face—"Natural justice does not generally demand orality". Giving judgment in the Court of Appeal of England and Wales, Lord Justice Harry Woolf held that an oral hearing may not always be the "very pith of the administration of natural justice". When deciding how the hearing should be conducted, the adjudicator has to ask whether the person charged has a proper opportunity to consider, challenge or contradict any evidence, and whether the person is also fully aware of the nature of the allegations against him or her so as to have a proper opportunity to present his or her own case.
The best way of producing a fair trial is to ensure that a party to it has the fullest information of both the allegations that are made against him and the evidence relied upon in support of those allegations. Where the evidence is documentary, he should have access to the documents. Where the evidence consists of oral testimony, then he should be entitled to cross-examine the witnesses who give that testimony, whose identities should be disclosed.
Difference between PRINCIPAL and PRINCIPLE
Never miss a great news story! Get instant notifications from Economic Times Allow Not now. Service tax is a tax levied by the government on service providers on certain service transactions, but is actually borne by the customers. It is categorized under Indirect Tax and came into existence under the Finance Act, Description: In this case, the service provider pays the tax and recovers it from the customer.
In phonology , minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language , spoken or signed , that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme , toneme or chroneme ,  and have distinct meanings. They are used to demonstrate that two phones are two separate phonemes in the language. Many phonologists in the middle part of the 20th century had a strong interest in developing techniques for discovering the phonemes of unknown languages, and in some cases, they set up writing systems for the languages. The major work of Kenneth Pike on the subject is Phonemics: a technique for reducing languages to writing. The following table shows other pairs demonstrating the existence of various distinct phonemes in English.
Principle vs. Principal: Meaning and Examples
The role of the principal covers many different areas including leadership, teacher evaluation, and student discipline. Being an effective principal is hard work and is also time-consuming. A good principal is balanced within all her roles and works hard to ensure that she is doing what she feels is best for all constituents involved. Time is a major limiting factor for every principal. A principal must become efficient at practices such as prioritizing, scheduling, and organization. A school principal is a primary leader in a school building. A good leader always leads by example. A principal should be positive, enthusiastic, have his hand in the day-to-day activities of the school, and listen to what his constituents are saying. An effective leader is available to teachers, staff members, parents, students , and community members. He stays calm in difficult situations, thinks before acting, and puts the needs of the school before himself.
Skip to content. Home About. English into urdu dictionary is launched to help urdu speaking people in learning English and increasing their vocabulary.
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Every trained first aider should have access to a first aid kit. Accidents and injuries are inevitable anywhere people gather, while health and safety standards are increasingly prioritised in Australian workplaces, schools and community settings. First aid kits contain basic elements for dealing with common injuries, along with accessories to ensure both casualty and first aider are protected. General first aid kits contain several items, including:.
Skip to content Thesaurus. Growth vs Development Since growth and development are two words in the English language that can be used with some difference although they appear to have the same connotation, it is useful to know the difference between growth and development so that they can be used correctly in the right context. Growth is a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important, … Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples. Development economics also examine both macroeconomic and microeconomic factors relating to the structure of developing economies, and domestic and international economic growth. Here I have given a short lecture about what is the difference between economic growth and economic development.
Beneficence and non-maleficence
Reducing the time of exposure can directly reduce radiation dose. Dose rate is the total amount of radiation absorbed relative to its biological effect. Dose rate is the rate at which the radiation is absorbed. Limiting the time of radiation exposure will reduce your radiation dose. Increasing the distance between you and the radiation source you will reduce exposure by the square of the distance.
Principal and principle are another set of homophones , which, despite sounding identical in their pronunciation, have completely different meanings. But as is the case with these other examples, once you know the difference, they are easy to tell apart. Principal is both a noun and an adjective with a few different uses. The most common meaning is used to refer to a person of high authority or prominence, someone who holds or plays an important role. An example of this would be a school principal.
Principal vs. Principle: What’s the Difference?
Important , Of Import - of great significance or value. Educator , Pedagog , Pedagogue - someone who educates young people. Capital - wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value. Principal Components Analysis.
Gill is Pakistani-American Christian who lived twenty seven years of his life in Pakistan. He understands political, religious, cultural and social aspects of Pakistani life. Gill has studied comparative religion particularly Islam and Christianity up to Graduate level.
The objectivity principle is the concept that the financial statements of an organization be based on solid evidence. The intent behind this principle is to keep the management and the accounting department of an entity from producing financial statements that are slanted by their opinions and biases. For example, if management believes that it will shortly be the beneficiary of a massive payout from a lawsuit, it may accrue the revenue associated with the payout, even though the evidence states that such an outcome might not occur. A more objective viewpoint would be to wait for more information before making such a determination. Another form of bias that can skew financial results is when management owns a large stake in the company, and so has an interest in reporting optimistic results for the business, even though a more objective view would result in the reporting of more conservative results.